union-imgcross icon
skuad logo

Hire, pay and manage your talent in 160+ countries.


We respect your data. By submitting the form, you agree that we will contact you about our products and services, in accordance with our privacy policy.
Thank you! Your submission has been received!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.

How do taxes work when working remotely out of state?


dot icon
Updated on:
March 15, 2024
dot icon

Updated on :

March 15, 2024
Hire International Employees at $199
Hire International Employees at $199
Start Hiring Now

Building a remote team?

Employ exceptional talent, anywhere, anytime!

Thank you! Your submission has been received!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.
How do taxes work when working remotely out of state?

The digital age has transformed the workplace, making remote work a prevalent choice for many professionals. While this flexibility is cherished by many, it can lead to tax intricacies, particularly if you operate from a state different from your employer's base. Dive in to grasp the tax nuances of working remotely across state lines.

The Basics of Remote Work Taxation

You'll often find that income taxes align with where you physically conduct your work rather than your employer's location. For instance, if you're based in State A but your company is headquartered in State B, you'd predominantly owe taxes in State A. The income is sourced to the location where the work is performed. Learn more about this from how international taxes for remote workers work.

Navigating Dual State Taxation

In some situations, you might find yourself liable for taxes in both your working state and the state where the company is situated. Thankfully, certain states have reciprocal agreements to prevent such double taxation, but it's crucial to verify individual state income taxes regulations.

Understanding Credits for Taxes Paid to Another State

Should you need to pay taxes in two states, many regions offer a tax credit to ease the financial strain of being double-taxed. This essentially means that if you pay income taxes to State A, your home state, State B, might give you a credit, diminishing your total tax obligation and tax liabilities.

The Intricacies of the "Convenience of the Employer" Rule

States like New York employ the 'convenience of the employer' principle. In simpler terms, if your decision to work remotely is for your own convenience as opposed to your employer's requirement, you may still need to pay New York state taxes. Learn about Form 1099-NEC for tech talent and remote teams.

Deciphering Non-resident and Part-Year Resident Returns

Let's say you've split your working year between two states. You may then need to file as a part-year resident for both regions. If your residence is in one state, but you work in another, a non-resident tax return in your working state might be necessary.

Engaging with States with No Income Tax

A few states, such as Texas and Florida, don't levy personal income taxes. If you're remote-working from these states for a company in a state that does, you typically won't owe tax in your work state. However, there can be exceptions based on unique circumstances.

Staying Ahead with Evolving Laws

As remote work gains traction, states are revisiting their taxation laws. It's imperative to remain abreast of these shifts to ensure you're adhering to the most recent regulations.

One platform to grow your global team

Hire and pay talent globally, the hassle -free way with Skuad

Talk to an experteor pattern

 Working from home avoids commuting, and fewer commuters result in 

 lower greenhouse gas emissions. 

How taxation works for different types of remote workers

In today's globalized digital economy, remote work is more prevalent than ever. But with its rise, there arises a labyrinth of taxation concerns. Different types of remote workers have unique tax considerations, and understanding these nuances is critical. Let’s delve into how taxation works for varied remote worker categories.

Full-time Remote Employees

Full-time remote workers are typically salaried employees of a company. Their tax implications:

Residency-Based Taxation: Most workers are taxed based on their state of residence. If you live and work in the same state, it's straightforward. But, living in one state while working for an employer in another can lead to multi-state tax implications.

Withholding Requirements: Employers will generally withhold taxes based on the state indicated in your employment records. Ensure you update your address with HR if you move.

Freelancers or Independent Contractors

Freelancers operate as self-employed individuals. Their taxation nuances:

Self-Employment Tax: Besides regular tax, freelancers often pay a self-employment tax covering Medicare and Social Security contributions.

Quarterly Tax Payments: Unlike salaried employees, freelancers are required to estimate and pay their taxes quarterly.

Deductions: Freelancers can typically deduct business-related expenses, including home office costs, software, and more, which can reduce taxable income.

Discover the differences between freelancers and full-time employees here.

Digital Nomads

Digital nomads work from various locations, often internationally. Tax factors for them:

U.S. Citizens and Worldwide Income: U.S. citizens are taxed on worldwide income but may qualify for the Foreign Earned Income Exclusion if they meet specific residency tests.

Local Taxes: Depending on their countries, digital nomads might also be liable for local taxes. It's essential to understand the tax treaties and local tax laws.

Learn more about how to tax digital nomads as an employer.

Part-time Remote Workers

These workers juggle multiple commitments and have their own set of tax considerations:

Multiple Withholdings: If working for several employers, ensure that each employer withholds the correct amount of state tax.

Combined Tax Rates: If total earnings from multiple sources push you into a higher tax bracket, your tax rate might be higher than expected.

Remote Workers for International Companies

Working for an international company while residing in the U.S. has its unique set:

Foreign Earned Income: Income earned from foreign employers must be reported on U.S. tax returns. Specific exclusions or credits, like the Foreign Tax Credit, might be applicable.

Formalities: Filing specific forms, like Form 2555, may be necessary for those qualifying for foreign income exclusions.

Do I Need to File Taxes in Two States?

The complexities of state taxes can be perplexing, especially when there's a potential overlap of jurisdictions. One of the most common questions that arise in such contexts is: "Do I need to file taxes in two states?" Delve into this comprehensive guide to understand the circumstances that may necessitate dual-state tax filings.

Establishing Residency and Working Status

Before jumping into scenarios, it's essential to grasp the concepts of residency and source of income.

Resident State: This is where you permanently reside. Typically, this state has the right to tax all your income, irrespective of where it's earned.

Non-resident State: If you earn money in a state where you don't live, it becomes your non-resident state. Generally, this state can tax the income you earned there.

Scenarios Requiring Dual State Tax Filings

Living in One State and Working in Another: Perhaps the most typical situation. If you live in State A but work in State B, you may need to file returns in both states. You'll file as a resident in State A and a non-resident in State B.

Relocating Mid-Year: Moved to a new state in the middle of a tax year? You may need to file part-year resident returns in both states, accounting for the income earned in each state during your residency.

Multiple Sources of Income in Different States: If you have various income sources from different states (e.g., rental income, business operations), you might need to file in multiple states.

Credits and Reciprocal Agreements

Many states offer credits for taxes paid to another state to prevent double taxation. For instance, if you paid taxes on income in your work state, your resident state might give you credit for those taxes.

Furthermore, some neighboring states have reciprocal tax agreements. If your resident and work states have such an agreement, you only need to file taxes in your resident state.

Some regions, like New York, have unique rules. The 'convenience of the employer' rule in New York can require non-residents who work remotely for a New York-based employer to pay New York state taxes, adding another layer to the dual-filing equation.

States With No Income Tax

In the vast landscape of U.S. taxation, a group of states stand out: those without a personal income tax. These tax havens often appeal to retirees, businesses, and even digital nomads. But what are these states, and what do their tax structures mean for residents and potential movers? Let's explore the ins and outs of states with no tax.

There are nine U.S. states that do not levy a personal income tax:

  1. Alaska
  2. Florida
  3. Nevada
  4. South Dakota
  5. Texas
  6. Washington
  7. Wyoming
  8. Tennessee (only taxes interest and dividend income)
  9. New Hampshire (only taxes interest and dividend income)

The lack of a state income tax often attracts both individuals and businesses. From retirees looking to stretch their savings further to companies hoping to provide an attractive location for potential employees, these states have a unique edge in the competitive landscape of residency.

Without personal income tax revenues, these states often rely on other means to generate funds for public projects and services:

Sales Tax: Some states, like Washington and Nevada, have higher sales taxes.

Property Tax: States like Texas might have steeper property taxes.

Specialized Taxes: Alaska leverages its rich oil reserves, imposing taxes on oil and gas production.

While the allure of no state income tax is enticing, it's essential to consider the overall tax burden:

Sales and Property Taxes: High sales or property taxes can offset what you might save on income tax, especially if you're a significant consumer or property owner.

Lack of Services: Lower revenues might mean fewer public services or infrastructural developments.

Is Moving Worth It?

The decision to move to a state with no income tax should be multifaceted:

Overall Tax Burden: Consider the total tax implications, including sales, property, and any other localized taxes or fees.

Job Opportunities: Ensure that the state offers robust job opportunities in your field.

Lifestyle and Services: Does the state offer the lifestyle, amenities, and public services you and your family desire?

File Taxes Compliantly With Skuad

Navigating the intricacies of taxation when working remotely out of state can be a daunting endeavor for both employees and employers. Ensuring compliance is critical to avoid penalties and legal hassles and to foster trust within the workforce.

Skuad’s Employer of Record platform streamlines the process for organizations, enabling them to hire and onboard talents across over 160 countries with full legal compliance. By partnering with Skuad, organizations can set aside the anxieties associated with multi-state or even multi-country taxation. With the assurance that all tax obligations are handled correctly, businesses can focus on what they do best: innovating and growing.

Schedule a demo to learn more about Skuad today.


Do I pay double taxes if I work remotely?

No, typically, you won't pay double taxes. While you may owe taxes in your resident and work states, many states offer credits or have reciprocal agreements to avoid double taxation.

Do I have to pay California taxes if I work remotely in another state?

Yes, if you're a California resident, you generally owe taxes on all your income, regardless of where you earn it. However, credits may be available for taxes paid to other states. Always consult with a tax professional for specifics.

About the author

Nathan Williams is a Global Payroll Specialist and Finance Consultant. With a background in banking and finance, he is passionate about modern tech practices in payroll management and using global payroll platforms for global payments.

Skuad is the best solution to hire and expand globally.

Skuad makes building globally distributed teams, quick and hassle-free.

Request demo
request demo img